Fibroids: Understanding the Basics.

As an expert in female reproductive health, I have encountered many women facing the challenges of uterine fibroids or myomas. These non-cancerous growths can cause a range of symptoms and impact a woman’s quality of life. This article aims to provide a comprehensive guide to understanding fibroids, their symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. By the end of this article, you’ll have the knowledge you need to take charge of your health and make informed decisions regarding fibroids.

What are Fibroids?

Fibroids, also known as uterine leiomyomas or myomas, are benign (non-cancerous) growths that develop within the muscular wall of the uterus. They can vary in size, ranging from as small as a seed to as large as a grapefruit. It are most common in women during their reproductive years, and it’s estimated that up to 80% of women will develop myomas by the age of 50.

Symptoms of Fibroids

Some women may not experience any symptoms, while others may experience a range of symptoms, including:

  1. Heavy menstrual bleeding: Myomas can cause heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding, which can lead to anemia (low iron levels).
  2. Painful periods: Myomas can cause cramping, pelvic pain, or pressure during menstrual periods.
  3. Pain during intercourse: Myomas can cause discomfort or pain during sexual intercourse.
  4. Frequent urination: Fibroids that press against the bladder can cause frequent urination or difficulty emptying the bladder.
  5. Constipation: Fibroids that press against the rectum can cause constipation or difficulty passing stools.
  6. Abdominal swelling: Large myomas can cause the abdomen to swell or enlarge.
  7. Infertility or pregnancy complications: It can sometimes interfere with fertility or lead to complications during pregnancy, such as preterm labor or miscarriage.

Causes and Risk Factors

While the exact cause of fibroids is not known, there are several factors that may increase a woman’s risk of developing them:

  1. Hormones: Estrogen and progesterone, which regulate the menstrual cycle, can stimulate the growth of myomas.
  2. Genetics: It tend to run in families, so women with a family history of fibroids are more likely to develop them.
  3. Age: Myomas are more common in women of reproductive age, typically between the ages of 30 and 50.
  4. Race: African women are more likely to develop fibroids than women of other races.
  5. Obesity: Being overweight or obese can increase the risk of developing fibroids.
  6. Diet: A diet high in red meat and low in fruits and vegetables may increase the risk of Myomas.
  7. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as pesticides, may increase the risk of myomas.

Types Of Fibroid

There are four main types of fibroids, classified based on their location in the uterus:

  1. Intramural fibroids: These are the most common type of myomas and grow within the muscle tissue of the uterus.
  2. Subserosal fibroids: These fibroids grow on the outer surface of the uterus and can become quite large.
  3. Submucosal fibroids: These fibroids grow just underneath the lining of the uterus and can cause heavy menstrual bleeding and other menstrual problems.
  4. Pedunculated fibroids: These myomas grow on a stalk, either inside or outside the uterus.

It can also be classified based on their size, with small fibroids measuring less than 5 centimeters, medium fibroids measuring between 5 and 10 centimeters, and large fibroids measuring over 10 centimeters.


A healthcare provider may use several methods to diagnose fibroids, including:

  1. Pelvic exam: A healthcare provider may feel for the presence of myomas during a pelvic exam.
  2. Imaging tests: Ultrasound, MRI, and CT scans are imaging tests that can be used to visualize them and determine their size and location.
  3. Hysteroscopy: A thin, lighted telescope called a hysteroscope is inserted through the vagina and cervix to examine the inside of the uterus.
  4. Endometrial biopsy: A small sample of tissue is removed from the lining of the uterus to be examined under a microscope. This is done to rule out other conditions that can cause similar symptoms.

Treatment Options

The treatment options for fibroids depend on the severity of the symptoms, the size and location of the them, and the woman’s age and desire for future fertility. Here are some common treatment options for fibroids:

  1. Watchful waiting: If the myomas are small and not causing any symptoms, a doctor may recommend monitoring them without any treatment.
  2. Medication: Hormonal medications, such as birth control pills or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, can help shrink myomas and alleviate symptoms. However, these medications are typically used for short-term relief and are not a long-term solution.
  3. Surgery: If the myomas are large, causing significant symptoms, or interfering with fertility, surgery may be necessary. The two main types of surgery for fibroids are:
  • Myomectomy: This surgery involves removing the myomas while leaving the uterus intact. It is a good option for women who want to preserve their fertility.
  • Hysterectomy: This surgery involves removing the entire uterus and is a permanent solution for myomas. It is typically only recommended for women who have completed childbearing.
  1. Non-surgical procedures: There are several non-surgical procedures that can be used to treat it, including:
  • Uterine artery embolization (UAE): This procedure involves blocking the blood supply to the fibroids, causing them to shrink.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focused ultrasound surgery (FUS): This procedure uses high-frequency sound waves to heat and destroy the fibroids.
  • Endometrial ablation: This procedure uses heat, cold, or radiofrequency energy to destroy the lining of the uterus, which can reduce heavy menstrual bleeding caused by fibroids.

It’s important to talk to your doctor about the best treatment options for your specific situation.


While the exact cause of fibroids is not known, there are some steps you can take to potentially prevent their development:

  1. Maintain a healthy weight: Being overweight or obese can increase the risk of developing it. Maintaining a healthy weight through a balanced diet and regular exercise can help reduce this risk.
  2. Manage stress: Stress can impact hormone levels, which can contribute to the development of it. Finding healthy ways to manage stress, such as through meditation, exercise, or counseling, can help reduce this risk.
  3. Eat a healthy diet: Eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help reduce the risk of fibroids. Avoiding red meat and processed foods may also be beneficial.
  4. Avoid or limit alcohol: Drinking alcohol can increase estrogen levels, which can contribute to the development of myomas. Limiting or avoiding alcohol may help reduce this risk.
  5. Consider birth control options: Some forms of hormonal birth control, such as the pill or an IUD, can help regulate hormone levels and reduce the risk of myomas.

It’s important to note that while these steps may help reduce the risk of fibroids, they cannot guarantee that you will not develop them.

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